Papers from The Coat of Arms 235 (2018) Now Available Online

Abstracts of papers


The heraldry and badges of King Richard II at Westminster Hall, Palace  of Westminster.  By D. Mark Collins.

King Richard II ordered a major remodelling of the Great Hall at Westminster in the Perpendicular Gothic style, and the work took  place between late 1393 and 1401. The hall was heightened, with the addition of a decorative string course, and above that new windows, and a hammerbeam roof. A new North Front was also constructed. All of these aspects were embellished repeatedly with the king’s heraldic shields, crests and badges. There are many variations of design in the crests and badges on the string course, including examples where the king’s white hart is seemingly under attack, an aspect which has previously escaped scholarly consideration.

London livery companies old and new, armorial design of the later twentieth century. By Richard Goddard  

In 1960 Bromley and Child published their definitive work The Armorial Bearings of the Guilds of London, and it was perceived that there was a need for this to be updated with the many livery companies which came into being since that date, including various others from 1954 which were omitted from Bromley and Child. This paper is divided into three parts. First, an examination of how the heralds responded to a request to regularise arms that had a long, albeit unauthorised usage. Second, a selection of the more interesting grants to the modern companies, and finally, a consideration of those grants which augmented the heraldic display of the longer established livery company.

Heraldry in Old St Pancras church. By Thomas Woodcock, Garter Principal King of Arms

Of the ten heraldic monuments remaining in Old St Pancras church four are floor slabs without colour, and of the remaining six tombs three have been poorly restored using incorrect tinctures. Taken as a whole the assemblage provides an interesting case study in the difficulties of confirming the veracity of arms even from so recent a period as the eighteenth-century, with some of the families using arms to which they were not entitled.

Brotherhood in arms. By Paul A Fox 

Sworn brotherhood evolved out of the pre-Christian rite of blood brotherhood, to which the Church objected. It is possible that an armorial example of blood brotherhood survives in the paired arms of Saher de Quincy (d.1219) and Robert Fitzwalter (d.1235). From the 1380s onwards there are instances of the impalement of the arms of knights who were sworn brothers, possibly following the lead of King Richard II when he impaled his arms with those of St Edward. At much the same time in England bishops began to impale their personal arms with those of the diocese. In the fifteenth century there is a remarkable example of a knight impaling his arms with those of the ruling Pope. Following the Reformation the impalement of arms between two men appears to have fallen into abeyance until it was revived by the College of Arms in 2014.

English Catholic heraldry since toleration 1778–2010.  By J.A.Hilton

In the early nineteenth century the persecuted Roman Catholic community in England obtained toleration with the Catholic Relief Acts and the Catholic Emancipation Act, and grew in numbers and influence. As a result, the English Catholic hierarchy was restored in the middle of the nineteenth century, but the heraldry of Catholic dioceses was in an anomalous position with unfortunate results. Meanwhile, the rise of cultural medievalism led to the Gothic Revival in architecture, led by A. W. N. Pugin, who also initiated an heraldic revival by returning heraldry to its medieval roots, a revival that was continued by Pugin’s disciples, fostered by their aristocratic patrons.

Dom Anselm Baker (1833–85) heraldic artist. By Richard C.F. Baker and Paul A. Fox

William Baker, who became Brother Anselm following his profession as a monk, doubtless had his personal interest in heraldic art stimulated by his father’s coach painting business. This interest was nurtured by the manufacturer John Hardman, whose apprentice William became. Hardman worked with Augustus Pugin and his son in the manufacture of gothic revival stained glass. Baker continued his collaboration with the Pugin family from his monastery, where he was the author of some beautiful heraldic works, one of which is to be serialised in the Coat of Arms by the gracious permission of the Abbot and community of Mount St Bernards Abbey.

The arms of the Cistercian abbeys as drawn by Dom Anselm Baker, Part 1:Yorkshire. By Michael Carter

The arms of four Yorkshire abbeys are considered, the mysterious three horseshoes of  Fountains Abbey, the three swords of Kirkstall Abbey, belonging to  the founder family of Peitivin, the three water bougets of Rievaulx Abbey derived from its patrons, the family of Roos, and finally, the two alternative arms of Sawley Abbey.

The heraldic screens of Middlewich, Cheshire. By Anthony Bostock

Two screens in St Michael’s church Middlewich which have not previously excited the interest of antiquarians are in the process of being conserved by the Middlewich Heritage Trust with the assistance of the Heritage Lottery Fund. They bear the date 1632, and were commissioned by Peter Venables (1603–1669), as a testament to family pride in lineage, celebrating coats of arms inherited through heiresses, and marriage alliances spanning over four hundred years. Venables and his brother-in-law Lord Cholmondeley were two of the wealthiest men in Cheshire at the outbreak of the Civil War, and suffered greatly as supporters of the crown. The many quarterings and impalements representing heiresses, and other marriage alliances, are delineated, and comparisons made with contemporary heraldic Visitations and a funeral certificate, from which some surprising discrepancies are apparent.

A Wiltshire passion for cognizances, the Hungerford family and its allies. By Stephen Slater

In the fourteeenth and fifteenth centuries many of the great families of Wiltshire adopted badges based on agricultural and other utilitarian implements, some of them inherited from other houses. There is evidence for widespread usage of these devices in churches, although many examples are now lost, while others remain only as faint traces which can be difficult to discern. The earliest of the group is the Hungerford sickle. Dependent families of Troponell and Long took the ox yoke and the lock, respectively. Also considered are the padlock of Lovell, the tirret of Tocotes, the rudder of Willoughby of Broke, and the sledge of Stourton. High on the battlements of Seend church traces of the badges of Hungerford, Willoughby of Broke Beauchamp Lords St Amand and Bourchier have been found which date to the reign of Henry VII, all these families being allies and adherents of the House of Lancaster.

Pineapples, pelicans and pursuivants: heraldry in Jamaica 1660 to 2010.  By Duncan Sutherland 

Jamaica has one of the oldest heraldic traditions in the Commonwealth, with two of the earliest grants of arms to a British colony and to a colonial city. Less well-known is its long tradition of personal heraldry, which saw over eighty grants made during the Georgian era when prosperous sugar planters sought to legitimise their family’s use of arms or applied for new ones. From the beginning many arms granted to Jamaicans featured distinctive local charges otherwise only rarely found in British heraldry, making this a rewarding area for study. Personal heraldry has continued to a smaller extent in the late twentieth and early twentyfirst centuries.

Personal heraldry in the Teutonic Order. By Steen Clemmensen 

The knight brothers of the Teutonic Order, were strongly discouraged from the usage of personal family arms. Personal arms were only used by top ranking knights, land masters and land commanders, and were avoided in Prussia. The surviving records of personal arms of officers and knights of the Teutonic Order, may be grouped into five types: lists of Hochmeisters (Grand Masters), funeral memorials, plaques and frescoes on and in buildings, local member lists (some of them armorial), and a list of people gathered in Prussia in 1430. No tombs of high ranking officers have survived in Prussia, but half a dozen exist in Germany. They are usually carved with twin shields, one for the Order and one for the family. Whenever a new building was completed or renewed, the senior officer would, like his lay peers, place their arms on it, at least from the middle of the fifteenth century. There are two churches and two castles in Prussia where painted murals survived which include heraldry. All the arms on the murals in Königsberg cathedral appear to refer to visiting crusaders, while in the Königsberg Juditten’ Church two of the arms can be assigned to senior officers of the Order. From seal evidence, personal or family arms were used by higher officers, together with their emblems of office, from a relatively early date in Germany and in Livonia. The arms of 42 Teutonic Knights based in Prussia c 1430 found their way into Burgundian armorials, and include those of minor officials and ordinary knight brothers in the Königsberg area. These were perhaps collected by a herald who made enquiries as to the ancestral arms of the knights. The first Hochmeister to integrate his personal arms with those of the office was Friedrich, duke of Saxony, who was elected in 1498

The display of arms in their primary martial contexts part 2: the pre-classic period in England c. 1217 – c. 1327 Shields, Horse-trappers, Martial Coats,Crests and Ailettes.  By D’Arcy Jonathan Dacre Boulton 

The shield was the only universal item of military equipment which bore arms in the period 1217–1327, although no original painted examples have survived on tombs, and very few tombs survive which have carved shields. Horse trappers were an elite item primarily used by knights of sufficient wealth to command forces in the field: the greater barons and knights banneret. Among this class the adoption of armiferous (armorial) trappers was almost universal in the period. Conversely, although the wearing of a martial coat over the mail hauberk was shared by all knights, armiferous martial coats were rare, and seldom seen in any source. They became the norm only after 1340. Crests tended to be fan-shaped, and did not serve as underliers for arms until after 1327. There exist early examples of carved emblematic crests, but these did not begin their rise to fashion in England until after c.1295. The shoulder plates known as ailettes were also used by knights of all ranks, but they were only occasionally armiferous. They fell completely out of fashion after the 1340s.


Drummond-Murray and Delarue, Banners of the bold.  By Richard C.F. Baker.

Clemmensen, Editing Armorials.  By Paul A Fox.

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